10 August 2016

Wireless Computing - 3g vs 4g

History
Today we live in a fast changing world. The fast changing world has its own demands of communicating, connecting with people as fast as possible i.e. in minimum time possible without the consideration of location of the user. The continuous demands and requirements for wireless communication systems have led to the need for a better understanding of fundamental issues in communication theory and electromagnetic and the implications for the design of highly-capable wireless systems.

The technology has been changed day by day and communication and mobile network application has been increased. Mobile network and its data growth and the use of Smartphone are creating extraordinary challenges for wireless service providers to conquer a global bandwidth shortage. Mobile phones are becoming a vital part of human life.

The mobile communication systems and the wireless communication technologies have been improving very fast day by day. Devices continue to shrink in size while growing in processing power. Consumers are demanding more advanced and useful applications. Hence, there is need of capacity improvements in wireless communications .In addition; wireless communications is active areas of technology development of our time. Several major cellular wireless communication techniques have been proposed in order to meet these user expectations.

1G was basically analog cellular systems with circuit switched network architecture. The main challenge of the technology was basic voice telephony, low capacity and limited local and regional coverage. The increased demand for high frequency ranges in the telecommunications sector caused development in analog to digital transmission techniques. 2G arrived to meet the capacity demands of expansion of voice plus telephony, text messaging and limited circuit switched data services.

The 3G system integrate voice and data applications. 3rd generation technologies of Mobile network allow network operators to offer users a wider range of advanced services while attain greater network capacity through improve spectral efficiency. 3rd generation makes use of wireless voice telephony, video calls, and broadband wireless data, all in one in mobile environment.

The 4G is a new generation of wireless that replaces the 3G systems. The key features of the 4G infrastructures are accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume of information, data, pictures, video, and so on. The future 4G infrastructures integrate various networks using Internet protocol as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environment. Based on the developing trends of mobile communications, the 4G focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks and have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and quicker handoff.

4G fourth generation of mobile network that is it is based on wireless technology standard. It is a descendant of 3rd generation and 2nd generation of mobile network. Mobile generation generally refers to change in the technology and nature of the service, the first was the move from 1981 analogue 1G to digital 2G transmission in 1992. 4G is essentially the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. The prospect from 4G technology is principally high quality audio/video streaming over end to end internet practice.

The International Telecommunications Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R) specified a set of requirements for 4G standards, named the International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced) specification, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users).

3rd Generation (3G)

3G stands for third generation the world best connection method. Both the communication and Government companies approved 3G standard. The basic feature of 3G technology fast data transfer rate. 3G technology uses TDMA and CDMA. 3G network range between 400 MHz to 3GHz. The 3G uses WCDMA framework and it’s very flexible and unique. 3G provides high speed internet and high quality audio quality as compare to the 2G the IMT-2000 standard, a systemize required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 Kbit/s about 0.2 Mbit/s. 3G offer recently 3.5G and 3.75G and it also provides broadband access of several Mbit/s to Smartphone and mobile.

4th Generation (4G)

The 4G (fourth generation) of mobile network communication, 4G standard very fast and reliable as compare to 3G network 4G communication is very fast and reliable and unique. Voice quality and video quality very reliable and multimedia messaging service, it’s guaranteed to deliver data on destination. 1G based on analog signal and 2G based on digital and 3G support multimedia access. 4G is basically the extension of 3G technology with more bandwidth and speed. The prospect from 4G technology is high speed internet connection and high speed and reliable voice quality. According to Muddit (2010) at el. The word Magic also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia, anywhere global mobility solutions over, integrated wireless and customized services.





Comparison between 3G and 4G wireless network


3G
4G
3rd generation of mobile telecommunications technology also called Tri-Band 3G.
4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone mobile communication technology standards.

It is the successor to 2G technology.
It is the successor to 3G technology.

It has various release versions like 3.5G, 3.75G.

It do not have its own release versions whereas it has release versions of technologies under it.

The technologies under it are CDMA 2000, UMTS, EDGE, 1XRTT, EVDO.

The technologies under it are WiMAX, Lte.


It based on high capacity broadband data.


It is completely based on Internet Protocol.
It has data bandwidth of 2Mbps.
It has data bandwidth of 200Mbps.
It has bandwidth of 5-10 Mbps.
Flexible bandwidth.
The spectral efficiency ranges from 1-5 Mhz.
The spectral efficiency could be 20 Mhz.
Costly in implementation.
Low cost than 3G.
The data throughput is up to 3.1Mbps.
The data throughput practically is 3-5Mbps and potentially it is 100-300 Mbps.

It has a peak upload rate of 5 Mbps.
It has a peak upload rate of 500 Mbps.
The peak download rate is 100 Mbps.

The peak download rate is 1 Gbps
It supports packet switching.
It supports packet as well as message switching.
Its network architecture is wide area cell based.

Its network architecture is integration of wireless LAN and wide area network.
It uses turbo codes for error correction.
It uses concatenated codes for error correction.
It has frequency band of 1.8-2.5 GHz.
It has frequency band of 2-8 GHz.
It provides video access to the user.
It provides HD video access to the users.
No virtual presence.

Virtual presence is also possible.
It provides digital navigation.
It provides virtual navigation.




Comparison between 3G and 4G based on merits and demerits.

Technology/Features
3G
4G
Start/Development
1990/2002
2000/2010
Data Bandwidth
2 Mbps
2000 Mbps to 1Gbps for low mobility
Standards
WCDMA, CDMA-2000
Single unified standard
Technology
Broad bandwidth CDMA, IP technology
Unified IP and seamless combination of broadband LAN/WAN/PAN/ and WLAN
Service
Integrated higher quality audio, video and data
Dynamic Information Access, Wearable Devices
Multiplexing
CDMA
CDMA
Switching
Packet except circuit for air interface
All packet
Core Network
Packet Network
Internet
Handoff
Horizontal
Horizontal and vertical



TECHNOLOGY OF 3G AND 4G


TECHNOLOGY
3G
4G
DATA BANDWIDTH
2 Mbps
200 Mbps
STANDARDS
WCDMA, CDMA-2000
Single unified standard
TECHNOLOGY
Broad bandwidth CDMA, IP technology
Unified IP and seamless combination of broadband, LAN/WAN/PAN and WLAN
SERVICES
Integrated high quality audio, video and data
Dynamic information access, wearable devices
MULTIPLEXING
CDMA
CDMA
SWITCHING
Packet except circuit for air interface
All packet
CORE NETWORK
Packet network
Internet
HANDOFF
Horizontal
Horizontal and Vertical


ADVANTAGES DAN DISADVANTAGES OF 3G AND 4G

Advantages
Disadvantages
Customers will get a high speed network for their communication
 If customers live in a area where the connectivity is low or non-existent then they will not be able to use this. 
Customer will get wireless broadband
Drains the battery life of customers phone 
Customers can use all the facilities at same time
The radiation of magnetic waves generated with the heavily use of the wireless system will affect human life
Cheap than the other traditional media we are using.
In this situation these companies will either disappear from this sector or will run with losses. Because of the customers will start to use the services of the companies having 3G technology.
Due to use of the DTH & the 3G technology, everyone will use these multi-purpose services to avoid time loss and keeping records for different service providers
The traditional cable business will badly affected by implementing this new technology


References
Gupta, S., Shakya, S., & Tyagi, H. (2013). The 4G Technology V / S other G      Technologies. Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software            Engineering, 3(3), 2011-2014.



Majeed, A. (2015). Comparative Studies of 3G , 4G & 5G Mobile Network & Data       Offloading Method a Survey. International Journal of Research in Information   Technology, 3(5), 421-427